My current position as President of the Carlo Rizzoli Foundation, which provides for the development and dissemination of Motor Sciences and supports for the didactic, scientific and research activities of the Motor Sciences courses of the University of Bologna led me to the creation of this book, combining the specific skills of various specialists, in order to understand, divided by topics, the whole body, from the chronic pathology to the foot diseases. Many of these specialists belong to the University of Bologna, the oldest European university, specifically to the Departments of Sciences for the Quality of Life (QuVi) and of Biomedical and NeuroMotorie Sciences (Dibinem) and to the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the main world orthopedics centers founded by Francesco Rizzoli and inaugurated in 1896.
To complete the book, the rehabilitative section was commissioned to a large and famous European center for sports rehabilitation, the Isokinetic of Bologna.
Lesions of the rotator cuff tendons, especially of supraspinatus, are an infrequent cause of subacromial pain and functional limitation, affecting mostly middle-aged soccer players. The pathological degeneration process usually begins in the supraspinous tendon due to the inferior blood supply at this level and to the wearing action of the long head of the biceps at the level of the rotator interval. Over time, degeneration and tearing may extend posteriorly also affecting the infraspinatus tendon. In massive ruptures of the cuff the long head of the biceps tendon is often affected, either broken or dislocated. This kind of trauma is associated with rotator cuff tear that is usually located on the lower surface of the tendon, configuring the partial tears on the articular side of the tendons.
Menisci are two intra-articular fibrocartilaginous structures, triangular in section; they are positioned between the tibial plate and femoral condyles, increasing the contact area of the articular surface. The medial one is shaped like a “C”; it is firmly linked to the joint capsule and it is the least mobile on the concave surface of the medial tibial plateau. The lateral one is shaped like a “O” and has a greater degree of freedom of movement on the convex surface on the lateral plateau. In fact, the menisci are linked to the tibial plate center mainly through their roots and, although other minor ligaments have been described, meniscal body are forced to move back and forward on the tibial plateau when the knee flexes and estended. Their blood supply comes mainly from the geniculate arteries that vascularize the capsule, thus the blood flow is significantly greater in the meniscal periphery than in the central portion.